Study suggests women are more likely to quit smoking than men
Sophia Country Club, France – 25 Aug 2021 The study of more than 35,000 smokers found that women smoke fewer cigarettes than men, but are less likely to quit. The research was submitted to the ESC Congress 2021.1
The study author Ms. Ingrid Allagbe, a PhD student at the University of Burgundy in Dijon, France, said: “In our study, women who used smoking services had more weight or obscurity, depression, and anxiety than men and women. a habit less often. Our findings illuminate the need to ensure that interventions tailored to women’s smoking interventions will be provided.
This study compared the characteristics and abstinence rates of men and women visiting smoking cessation services between 2001 and 2018 in France. Net data were obtained from the CST-NET national database. Study smokers aged 18 and older had at least one additional risk factor for cardiovascular disease: overweight/obese (body mass index [BMI] 25 kg/m² or above); high cholesterol; diabetes; high blood pressure; history of stroke, heart attack or angina.
Nicotine was used to indicate nicotine dependence that participants had mild, moderate, or severe dependence.2 Smoking abstinence (at least 28 consecutive days) has been self-reported and confirmed by carbon monoxide measurements of less than 10 parts per million (ppm).
Participants provided information about their age, education, other conditions including diabetes and respiratory diseases, and the number of cigarettes smoked daily. They measured height and weight. Participants were indicated to have anxiety and depression symptoms or not according to medical history, use of anti-study or antidepress drugs, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).
A total of 37,949 smokers were included in the study, out of which 16,492 (43.5%) were women. The average age of the women in the study was 48 years, and the mean age of the men was 51 years (p<0.001). A majority of women (55%) reported a bachelor's degree or higher education degree compared to males (45%, p<0.001).
Both men and women had great burdens of cardiovascular risk. High cholesterol was more frequent in men (33%) compared to women (30%, p<0.001), as was high blood pressure (26% versus 23%, respectively, p<0.001). Diabetes mellitus was even more common in men (13%) compared to women (10%, p<0.001).
A greater proportion of women (27%) were overweight or obese compared with men (20%; p<0.001). Women (37.5%) were more likely to have symptoms of anxiety or sadness than men (26.5%, p<0.001) were. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was more frequent in women (24%) compared with men (21%, p<0.001), as was asthma (16% versus 9%, respectively; p<0.001).
The average number of cigarettes smoked on day 23 in women and 27 in men (p<0.001). Some 56% of women had severe nicotine dependence compared to 60% of men (p<0.001). Abstinence was less common in women (52%) than men (55%, p<0.001).
Ms. Allagbe said: “The findings suggest that despite smoking fewer cigarettes and less nicotine dependent than men, women may be more difficult to quit. They can be contributors to the overall prevalence of anxiety, depression and overweight or obesity among women. It has previously been reported that women face various obstacles such as smoking cessation, fear of weight gain, and sex hormonal restrictions.”3
She concluded: “The results indicate that comprehensive smoking cessation programs are needed for women who provide multidisciplinary access to psychologist, diet and physical activity.”